Laparoscopic surgery is a modern method of surgery which involves the use of laparoscope (a thin fiber optic tube) that has a small video camera attached on its tip.
In this type of surgery, small incisions of 0.5-1cm (known as port) are made. The laparoscope is inserted through this small incision mostly in the navel, and guided to the problem area. The Laparoscopic surgeon then inserts tiny surgical instruments through other small incisions (ports) to perform a procedure.
The video camera transmits an image of the organs inside the abdomen onto a screen or monitor. The laparoscopic surgeon cannot see directly the part of the patients organ that he or she is performing operation on rather surgeon uses the image captured by the camera positioned inside the patients body to perform surgical operation. The camera in any laparoscopic surgery becomes the surgeons eye.
Advantages of Laparoscopic Surgery
- In open surgery, surgeon has to make large incision to perform surgery, but in case of laparoscopic the size of the incisions are much smaller, as a result risk of bleeding is reduced to a considerable extent. This in turn reduces the chances of blood transfusion being needed to compensate for any blood loss.
- In laparoscopic surgery, the person feel less discomfort after the operation. In most cases the person who is been operated goes home the very next day of surgery.
- The operated person can resume his or her daily activities earlier.
- In case of laparoscopy, significantly smaller scars are formed due to the smaller incision size. In most open surgery where large incision need to be made, the scare tissue that forms is more prone to infection. In some people, these scar tissue can cause pain, and in 1-3% of people, may lead to intestinal obstruction at some point in their lives.
- Exposure of the internal organs to external contaminants is much less in laparoscopic surgery, therefore reducing the risk of post-operative infection
- Laparoscopic surgeon sees the magnified images of the organ parts on the monitor. This gives the laparoscopic surgeon more detail about the tissues that might not be possible using traditional surgery.
There are many complex functions that human hand can perform but are difficult to replicated with laparoscopic instruments. Since in laparoscopic surgery a surgeon cannot place his or hand into patients abdomen, it has limited the use of laparoscopy for many complex surgery on organs like liver, pancreas or bile duct. Hand-access devices are advanced laparoscopic devices that allows a laparoscopic surgeon to place a hand into patients abdomen while performing laparoscopic surgery and does many of the different functions with the hand that were previously possible only during open surgery. With the use of this modern hand access devices, many laparoscopic surgery for pancreas, liver and bile duct diseases had performed successfully.